Kelzyme Works || Benefits
to Plants || Effects
on Crops ||
Marine Algae Soil Conditioner ||
of Application || Application
Rates || Transplanting
Effects of Urea || Containment
Organic Conditioner For Soil :: How Kelzyme
Any dependency on chemicals and
their sources is in large measure eliminated.
The addition of Kelzyme is the addition of a natural
up-building substance to the soil.
like all living things, draw from their
environment what they need in order to survive
and grow. Kelzyme Organic Soil Conditioner
greatly improves the most important aspect
of a plant's environment, the soil. Kelzyme's
catalytic power stimulates the release of
the various soil nutrients needed by plants.
when mixed with organic or chemical fertilizers
(such as nitrogen, phosphorous or potassium),
Kelzyme not only promotes
but increases their joint effect. Such
a benefit is called synergism-nature's
bonus when certain elements are properly
brought together under the right conditions
so they can interact.
Kelzyme's natural conditioning,
stimulating and fertilizing of
the soil are more beneficial and long
lasting than current methods of applying
(or misapplying) chemical fertilizers
synergistic power also helps plants to repel
insects and resist harmful bacteria and fungi
in the soil. Its slightly acidic pH value of
5.5, created by the presence of amino acids,
enables Kelzyme to help balance otherwise alkaline
Soil Conditioning Benefits to Plants
like all living things, draw what they need from
their environment in order to survive and grow.
Kelzyme Soil Conditioner and Fertilizer greatly
improves the most important aspect of a plant's
environment, the soil. Kelzyme's catalytic power
allows the release of various soil nutrients needed
mixed with organic or chemical fertilizers such
as nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium, Kelzyme
not only promotes but also increases their joint
synergistic power also helps plants to repel
insects and resist harmful bacteria and fungi
in the soil. Kelzyme's slightly acidic pH value
of 5.5, created by the presence of amino acids,
enables it to help balance otherwise alkaline
Conditioner that is easily assimilated by
Natural Fertilizing agent
for growth of helpful bacteria in the soil
that release, fix, or make nutrients available
repressor of harmful bacteria and fungi in
catalyst for plants to manufacture their own
natural insect repellent on leaf surface.
excellent liming material, which overcomes
Soil Conditioner is made up of a balanced
array of water-soluble minerals, differing greatly
from N-P-K fertilizers in that 25 or more growth
factors are identifiable in Kelzyme as opposed
to one to three in the current varieties. For
example, Kelzyme's growth factors help plants
to obtain nitrogen by stimulating natural, nitrogen-fixing
bacteria in the soil. Kelzyme's content analysis
will show less nitrogen than commercial fertilizers,
although more nitrogen is actually available
to the plants because of the balance established
by Kelzyme. In this balanced environment, the
nitrogen demands of decomposing soil material
are supplied by existing bacteria, leaving any
nitrogen in commercial fertilizer free to benefit
the intended plants. Therefore, less commercial
fertilizer (and its accompanying expense) is
needed to obtain previous or better quality
stimulating organic activity in the soil, Kelzyme
lowers toxic residues from various salts and
chlorinated hydrocarbons. Toxins from harmful
organisms such as Nematodes and fungus infestations
are also reduced. Not only does Kelzyme mitigate
the poisons these ills generate, it stimulates
attacks on the diseases themselves.
Soil Additive decreases the need for
insecticides by presenting stronger, more self-defensive
plants to insect invasions. It is known that
some plants in fields treated with Kelzyme are
able to produce a distasteful, waxy film on
their surfaces to repel insect attacks, causing
insects to bypass treated fields in favor of
the untreated plants.
Kelzyme's natural conditioning, stimulating,
and fertilizing of the soil is more
beneficial and long lasting than current methods
of applying (or misapplying) chemical fertilizers
and insecticides. Dependency on chemicals and
their sources is in large measure eliminated.
The addition of Kelzyme is the addition of a
natural up-building substance to the soil.
Kelzyme Natural Soil Conditioner:: Effects on
has shown significant benefits when applied
to virtually any crop, not only in yields but
in quality increases as well.
- Higher yields, earlier maturation, larger
heads, higher protein content, lower fertilization
requirements, better germination rates.
Grains - Larger heads and consistently
higher protein content. Also, because of the
increased availability of vital elements, crops
have consistently been able to mature earlier
and, most importantly, to withstand drought
conditions to a much better degree than untreated
- Increased germination rates, faster growth,
more blossoms, more squares and heavier setting
of fruit with less loss dropping from the blossom
to square to boll setting, sturdier stems and
stocks, heavier setting of seeds in the boll,
increased luster to the fiber of the cotton itself
(increasing the grade and the price), lower nitrogen
requirements, lower water requirements, higher
yields per acre, increased disease resistance,
blossoms setting at the top of the plant while
bolls are opening at the bottom of the plant (producing
a longer fruiting period and higher yields).
- Increased germination rates, increases
in ear size, an increase in kernel size
and regularity, an increase in protein
content, earlier maturation of crops,
increased yields both in silage crops
and feed corn production, increased ability
to withstand disease and insect infestation,
and an increase in sugar content of the
- A much leafier growth, faster recovery
after cutting, lower water requirements,
an increase in protein content, and an
increase in some overall yields as high
as 25% over the control, or untreated,
- A much faster growth (with larger, juicier,
redder produce), lower acid content, much improved
flavor, an average of ten days to two weeks
earlier maturing rate, a significant resistance
to disease (principally the mosaic virus), increases
in yields from 10% to as high as 23% in certain
varieties (hot house conditions).
- Faster growth on young trees, a marked increase
in sugar content of the fruit itself, thinner
rinds, heavier fruits, higher disease resistance,
lower fertilizer requirements, increased frost
resistance (both to the tree and the fruit),
mineral deficiencies much less prominent.
- Much heavier yields of all fruits tested
(including peaches, pears, plums, apples,
apricots, nectarines, cherries), earlier
maturation rates, heavier fruits, later
fruits, better quality yields, lower fertilization
- Better germination rates, faster growth,
higher sugar content, resistance to splitting
and sunburning, earlier maturation, greater
consistency in quality, lower water and
fertilizer requirements, increased disease
resistance, better quality retention after
Beets - Improved germination
rates, faster growth, increased size,
increase in sugar content, more disease
resistant, lower fertilization requirements.
Cane - Faster growth,
earlier maturation, much improved sugar
content in quality as well as quantity,
Beans - An increase of 22% germination
rate on 32 different experiments, 29% more nodulation
in the root zone, yields increased 21%, protein
increased an average of 9%, better disease resistance,
lower requirements, earlier maturation of crop.
Conditioner For Soil :: Fossilized Marine Algae
is a unique agricultural soil conditioner
derived from a fossil deposit rich in
calcium and containing an abundance of trace minerals
essential for enhanced plant health
and productivity. Our goals are to continue to
provide superior products for our global partners
in agriculture, ranching,
forestry, and habitat
Natural Soil Conditioner for agriculture
is an unusually potent source of elemental calcium
along with a wide spectrum of trace minerals
necessary for sustained growth of agricultural
crops in a variety of soil conditions. Kelzyme
can be used to stabilize depleted mineral content
in soils that have been continuously planted
or where conventional fertilizers have been
used. In natural/organic farming operations
Kelzyme will improve the microbial health and
overall physical structure of the soil. Kelzyme
assists in balancing pH and by increasing microbial
activity in soils Kelzyme will also help to
metabolize soluble salts in soils that can be
harmful to crop production.
origin of Kelzyme Organic Soil Conditioner
is a combination of marine and geothermal dynamics.
The Paleozoic algal mounds that formed the Kelzyme
deposit are similar to many other stromatolite
formations within what was once a vast, inland
sea that covered the Great Basin of North America.
These algal mounds were often places of rich
marine life including calcareous algae, marine
macroalgae, hermatypic coralline animals, mollusks,
sessile invertebrates, and a wide variety of
pelagic species of plants and animals. These
mounds were formed and reformed as the accession
and recession of seawater ebbed and flowed over
the environment. This accounts for the many
layers of materials in the Kelzyme deposit.
These carbonate facies were formed in the presence
of a rich source of marine calcium forming a
limestone travertine deposit containing the
variety of minerals concentrated by the abundant
marine life forms that colonized this formation.
During the continuous formation of the stromatolitic
mounds geothermal fresh water, super heated
by magma continued to purify and integrate the
mineral constituents of the Kelzyme deposit.
This geothermal activity took place long after
the final recession of the marine environment
further purifying and integrating the deposit.
This unusual combination of natural forces formed
the high calcium and trace mineral deposit now
is available to farmers as a soil conditioner
for improving the overall quality of
the crops they produce due to abundance of trace
minerals in an easily assimilated high elemental
calcium carrier. Kelzyme is non-burning and
can be applied pre-plant or a side dressing
for orchards, vineyards, and row crops. Kelzyme
is useful to growers of grain crops because
of the high availability of the minerals it
contains. Continuously planted areas benefit
from Kelzyme due to its long lasting nature.
The physical structure of soils is improved
when Kelzyme is applied due to a balancing of
mineral content in the soil. Kelzyme improves
microbial health in soils thus making phosphate
more available to plants. By improving the health
of beneficial soil microbes, Kelzyme is also
known to suppress the proliferation of pathogenic
microbes via the process of competitive exclusion.
Drought resistance is improved as cell wall
strength is increased from the presence of silica
(Si) in Kelzyme. Frost resistance is also increased
because of this increase in cell wall turgidity.
For Soil :: Method of Application
Organic Soil Conditioner is mined and
processed into a granular material that is presently
classified as a 1/4" minus mineral. The particle
size can be specifically classified to meet any
users need. The present size classification has
been determined to allow for a high level of effectiveness
ensuring both immediate assimilation as well as
long-lasting residual beneficial effects of Kelzyme
application to agricultural soils.
of application are varied. Kelzyme Soil
Conditioner can be applied manually,
mechanically, and by aircraft. Variations in
application methods can affect accuracy when
applying Kelzyme, especially when Kelzyme is
applied by hand. Hand spreading of Kelzyme may
result in higher levels of application than
is prescribed for use. Although this is not
harmful to the soil or to crops being raised,
it may result poor application calculation and
uneven availability of the material.
of Kelzyme is the recommended type of application.
Kelzyme can be applied by hand powered broadcast
spreaders, manually propelled broadcast or drop
spreaders, tractor propelled broadcast or drop
spreaders, liming / manuring trucks, and aircraft.
These types of equipment can be calibrated to
apply Kelzyme at the prescribed rate for a particular
crop. This type of application of Kelzyme will
ensure even distribution and economical use
of the material. Hand operated broadcast spreaders
are the most efficient way to apply Kelzyme
to continuously cropped rice fields in the absence
of tractor propelled equipment.
variety of methods by which Kelzyme can be applied
is another testimony to the versatility of this
product for agriculture. Kelzyme is useful for
traditional farming systems as well as fully
For Soil :: Application Rates
rates for Kelzyme are best determined by soil
conditions and cropping frequency of fields.
Kelzyme can be applied to growing crops or during
field preparation. The length of time between
applications of Kelzyme can also be determined
by soil conditions, and how intensively a field
is planted. The application rates provided in
this document for Kelzyme are general and should
be refined by soil type, plant specifics, cropping
frequency, and fertilizer inputs.
standard application rate of 500lbs./227kg per
acre for field crops is recommended for most
field crops such as wheat, rice, oats, barley,
sorghum, corn, rape, safflower, alfalfa, and
legumes. This rate should be repeated every
other year unless the field is continuously
cropped. When continuous cropping is practiced
annual application of Kelzyme is suggested.
Various methods of application may be employed.
Drop spreaders and broadcast spreaders are the
recommended methods. Pre-plant application and
pre-plow/cultivation application are the suggested
timing for application of Kelzyme on field crops.
crops are variable in nutritional needs. Many
types of vegetables require higher levels of
available nutrients than others. Kelzyme application
to row crops is recommended from 250 to 750
lbs./114 to 340 kg per acre. Pre-plant application
of Kelzyme is the suggested method for row crops.
However, Kelzyme can be applied as a side dressing
to growing crops without any loss of effectiveness.
Heavy feeding crops will require more frequent
treatments of Kelzyme, but no crop requires
more than one annual treatment. Row crops that
do not require as much nutrition can be treated
every other year and with smaller applications
of Kelzyme. The following criteria: soil quality
and type, plant specific information, frequency
of planting, and type of irrigation practices
should determine application rates.
vineyard application of Kelzyme is suggested
at 500lbs. to 750lbs./227 to 340kg per acre.
Soil conditions and vine variety will also determine
the recommended application rate. The suggested
timing of Kelzyme application is during the
dormant season from November to January. Kelzyme
may also be applied prior to seeding of cover
crops. Application of Kelzyme to most vineyards
should only be repeated every other year. Drop
spreaders are the suggested method of application
for Kelzyme in vineyards. For those operations
that utilize organic mulches and composts to
increase soil quality, Kelzyme may be mixed
with the compost or mulch and applied at the
same time to mulch is applied.
rates for orchard crops are divided into three
categories. Deciduous, evergreen, and tropical
fruit crops. Application may vary in some cases
due to extreme soil conditions or irrigation
For Soil :: Transplanting
minerals will increase the energy level of your
compost. Kelzyme will also help to keep down odors
in the compost. The end result: superior compost
full of minerals.
you are transferring nursery stock in containers,
digging field grown plant material, transplanting
large trees or just replanting, Kelzyme
can help reduce the chance of transplant
shock in plants. Kelzyme contains calcium
and numerous trace minerals that are not
contained in conventional fertilizers. These
minerals can help your plant survive the
initial shock of being transplanted.
high available calcium content plus 70
other trace minerals will aid in mineralizing
Kelzyme is one
of the best natural compost activators.
Kelzyme feeds the bacteria, thus increasing
its population and speeding up the compost
process. The finished compost will be
Kelzyme will also increase
the activity of bacteria in the compost. The
bacteria feed off Kelzyme’s minerals.
The increased bacteria will then stimulate the
A must for all vegetable
gardens, Kelzyme will improve soil condition
and structure, improving the quality of vegetables
For Soil :: Negative Effects of Urea in Soil
Urea is used
as a nitrogen release fertilizer as it hydrolyses
back to 2NH2 and CO2 but its most common impurity
(biuret,NH2-CO-NH-CO-NH2) must be present at
less than 2% as it impairs plant growth. It
is also used in many multi-component solid fertilizer
Its action of nitrogen release is due to the
conditions favoring the reagent side of the
equilibriums which produce urea.
Lopez from "The Invisible Gardener"
wrote this about Urea:
H.M. Rouelle in 1773 discovered Urea in human
urine. It was synthesized in 1828 by Friedrich
Wohler.This is when Wohler wrote to Berzelius
the following: “I must tell you that I
can make urea without the use of kidneys, either
man or dog. Ammonium cyanate is urea!”
This synthesis has since then been trying to
deal a severe blow to the belief called “vitalism”
which maintains that organic chemicals can be
modified by chemistry but could only be produced
through the agency of a vital force present
in living plants and animals. Here is where
the organic gardener and the chemical gardener
part ways. Those of you that believe in this
vitalism in general stand to the right and those
of you that say there’s no difference
stand to the left! In 1870 urea was produced
by heating ammonium carbamate in a sealed vessel.
This provided the basis of the current industrial
process for its production.
Urea is produced commercially by the dehydration
of ammonium carbamate (NH2COONH4) at elevated
temperature and pressure. Ammonium carbamate
is obtained by direct reaction of ammonia with
carbon dioxide. These reactions are normally
carried out simultaneously in a high pressure
There are many uses for urea: Pharmaceutical,
Resins, Agricultural, as well as Industrial
uses; for our purpose we will stick to its agricultural
uses and the effects it has on the soil, plants,
lawns, trees, etc.
Nitrogen is nitrogen is nitrogen?
The whole idea is that there is a difference
between an organic source of nitrogen and a
chemical source of nitrogen. Urea (when it was
discovered that it could be made from inorganic
( non-living) compounds and that chemically
it was identical to its natural cousin Urine)
was proclaimed as an important tool in growing
more food to help feed the worlds growing population.
This is still the current logic that chemical
companies would like you to believe. The American
idea that a little is OK but a lot is better
does not really apply here.
Urea is 45% nitrogen and 55% inert. Animal urine
is closer to 2-5% nitrogen along with a variety
of minerals and bacteria. While I admit that
nowadays it is easier to get Urea then it is
to get animal urine, animal urine is the preferred
organic method of nitrogen application. Another
good reason most people do not use animal or
human urine is health concerns although animal
or human urine is perfectly safe to use as long
as the donor is healthy. I use animal urine
whenever I can and admit that it is harder to
get at then its chemical cousin since you have
to have access to a farm and make arrangements
to have it saved for you as well as to find
out if any chemicals have been injected into
the animals, etc.. While it is understandable
why we use Urea as a urine substitute the negatives
far out weigh the positives.
and Negatives about Urea
Sorry but I can’t think of any thing positive
about using Urea except it makes money for anyone
1- Rapid Growth pushes plants to grow too fast
2- Plants grow fast but are very weak
3- Promotes stress
4- Destroys soil organisms
5- Increases pest activities
6- Increases disease activities
7- Urea breaks down into various compounds some
of which can inhibit plant growth.
8- Eventually decreases plant production
9- Decreases nutritional values of plants to
humans while increases nutritional value to
10-The carbon in Urea based fertilizers is chemically
converted to CO2 and lost to the atmosphere.
Carbon is energy to plants and soil micro-organisms.
It is a mistaken idea that more nitrogen is
better then less. What you must understand is
how nitrogen is available in nature and how
plants and soil organisms use it. Nitrogen is
produced freely in nature by various mechanisms
found in nature. The most obvious sources of
nitrogen is animal manure. Another source is
bacterial action. The bacteria produce nitrogen
in a form available to the root hairs (through
which it is absorbed into the plants) as well
as a variety of other nutritional sources. Another
source (actually #1) is produced by nature herself
through the various storms she has on the planet.
Urea causes stress?
Plants can absorb nitrogen directly from the
air as well as from the soil but they can also
absorb it directly through their leaves. A basic
problem with Urea based products is how it is
available to plants. Natural sources provide
plants with nitrogen as they need it and when
they want it as opposed to chemical nitrogen
such as Urea which is absorbed by the plants
in very large amounts whether it needs it or
not. This is where stress comes in. By force
feeding your plants this chemical nitrogen,
you are causing stress in the plants. Stress
is also caused by the fact that Urea kills off
all beneficial soil bacteria which are needed
to breakdown the nutrients needed by plants.
As the soil becomes less and less alive, the
plants become increasingly dependent on the
straight shots of ‘food’ it gets
from the chemical fertilizer you are using.
you feed your plants is as important as what
you feed them?
that cause stress in plants:
2..low nutrition levels
3..low mineral levels
4..planted in wrong environment
5..wrong variety planted
6..other chemical use such as herbicides, pesticides,
Urea does to the soil:
There are two ways to sterilize the soil, using
chemicals and using heat. Urea is a chemical
that sterilizes the soil by killing off all
the good bacteria normally found living in the
soil. Urea because of its identical molecular
structure is mistaken by bacteria and plants
as a food source. Because Urea is a much more
concentrated source of nitrogen, the bacteria
are not fed but are actually destroyed leaving
behind a mutated form of bacteria which the
plants cannot use. Slowly plants find themselves
weakening, starving from lack of proper nutritionist
and stressed out. Their root systems no longer
function as they should. They depend more &
more on their chemical ‘hit’ to
provide nutrition for them. The soils natural
bacterial system is converted into one that
cannot be used by plants root systems for food
absorption but instead the bad bacteria themselves
begin to feed off the plants!
Urea does to the Plants:
The plants get an immediate ‘relief’
when you apply or spray fertilizers based on
urea or some other chemical form of high nitrogen,
but as it wears off the plants return to their
weakened state and become even more stressed.
This process is repeated over and over again.
Less soil bacterium less root hair which equal
less food being absorbed by the plants which
means less energy, less minerals, more stress.
Many chemical fertilizers are now using timed
release fertilizers that release their ‘hits’
over a time, thus reducing down time. However
this is not the case at all, instead the timed
release fertilizers merely are increasing stress.
Now Plants are stressed out all of the time!
Fertilizer companies are also adding more nutrients
to their Urea based fertilizers to help plants
last longer as well as systemic to fight off
pests and diseases. Plants thus stressed out
are more inclined to disease and pest attacks
then organically grown plants.
Urea does to Diseases:
The very same bacteria that are normally present
in the soil dies and is replaced by a different
type of bacteria. Some of the bacteria are of
the “bad” type. This is to say the
bacteria are of the fungal disease type and
are all soil born. They can establish themselves
in the soil if certain conditions are right
for them. The main condition being the lack
of the “good” bacteria.
Good Guys and The Bad Guys do not live in the
What are the perfect conditions for diseases
Dead Soil Chemical
over use destroys all soil bacteria expect for
a few specific types of bad bacteria that depend
on these conditions to grow. Urea when used
over many years, destroys this balance of good
and bad bacteria.
Stressed Plants Dead soil increases the plant's
stress levels due to bad conditions for plant
High Nitrogen High nitrogen causes rapid growth.
Rapid growth without proper nutrition causes
more stress which in turn restricts more nutrition
from being absorbed by plants. High nitrogen
also attracts insects that have mutated to handle
plants that have such rapid growth. High nitrogen
also mutates bacteria into rapid growth cycles.
Environmental stress can be from improper watering
to weather cycles such as too much rain or drought.
Biological considerations. Planting the wrong
variety or type of plant in the wrong environment
will certainly cause major stress to plants
and all involved.
Over Chemical use of any type from pesticides
to herbicides, etc. will cause major damage
to soil's Eco system and disrupt nutritional
Ole Barrel Trick! (The Law of the Minimum)
If you were to look at a wine barrel. Notice
how the slots are held together by a band going
around it with a bottom to hold the liquid.
Imagine that each slot of the wine barrel was
a element needed by plants. Starting with nitrogen,
potassium, phosphorus and so on. Now lets say
they were to actually represent the amount that
was available to plants to use. the greater
the length the more is available. The nitrogen
‘slot’ is 1 foot up above the top
level of the wine barrel with various lengths
of ‘slots’ for the varying amounts
of each. Now lets suppose we started filling
it up with water. How far up the barrel could
we go before water would start spilling out?
The lowest slot of course! All that nitrogen
above the lowest slot is useless in holding
any water isn't’ it? Actually all the
nitrogen is what cause some of the other slots
to be so low. remembering that there is a basic
minimum level of minerals that you want. Too
much minerals become toxic to its environment
as too much nitrogen becomes toxic to its environment.
Feed the bacteria first and let the bacteria
feed the plants.
Use slow release organic sources of nitrogen
Never use Nitrogen sources only but combine
with minerals and bacteria.
Provide minerals in amounts needed by soil and
Encourage high bacterial count by increasing
use of compost based products or make your own
High Nitrogen=High Stress=Disease/Pests=Low
Minerals=Low Nutrient levels=Low Energy, High
Energy=High Nutrient Levels=No Stress=No Pests/
final note: There is a reason
why Certified Organic Farmers cannot use store
bought Urea based products! I am only talking
about man made urea and not that naturally made
by animals including humans. Please don't allow
people to convince you that there is no difference
between the two and it is therefore ok to use
it. Tell the plants, the soil that!
Organic Conditioner For Soil :: Kelzyme as a
Containment Remediation Device
Marine Macroalgae use as a Hygienic Soil Biology
Enhancement Amendment and Contaminant Remediation
Device in Pakistani Rice Cropping Systems.
Donald W. Trotter
Environmental Health Science Corporation
of Provo, Utah (EHS) was tasked by Pacific
Alliance International Marketing Ltd.
of British Columbia, Canada to determine
whether the fossilized marine macroalgae
(Kelzyme) material mined by EHS for use
as an agricultural soil enhancement amendment
worldwide would have a remediation effect
on soils contaminated with elevated levels
of Fluorine (F) from nitrogen applied
to rice crops of the "Green Revolution"
generation rice cultivars in Pakistan.
EHS undertook the task at the Southern
California Research Station (SCRS) along
with information gathered from documentation
of rice cropping systems where Kelzyme
has been in use for several years.
information gathered from these test shows significant
precipitation of Fluorine as well as an overall
increase in soil biological activity that indicates
a potential for enhanced hygienic microbial
activity while decreasing pathogenic microbial
populations. From this testing it is herein
documented that Kelzyme has the capacity to
remediate fluorine contaminants while improving
the soil food web's vigor.
Fluorine (F) contamination
of agricultural soils from various nitrogen
sources has been seen more often in this era
of increased soil health monitoring. Precipitation
of Fluorine with Calcium Oxide (CaO) or burned
lime has in the past been the only effective
method of scrubbing Fluorine from environments
where it has reached unacceptable levels. CaO
is often not a viable solution to this contamination
in agricultural soils due to lack of economically
accessible material. Presently little is known
about biological remediation of Fluorine contaminated
soils, and due to the high solubility of F it
can easily enter into the food or drinking water
supply. Fluorine is toxic to humans in small
amounts and can enter into plant tissues when
complexed to iron as FeF6, which is highly soluble
in water. High concentrations of Fluorine in
soils where food crops are cultivated may result
in unacceptable levels of Fluorine or Fluorine
complexes entering into the food supply through
a staple crop. Although it is not presently
known what the levels of Fluorine contamination
exist in the soils of the country of Pakistan,
it is known that high levels of Fluorine in
the diet is a threat to the health of those
consuming contaminated foods (Fournier, et al,
1998). It is hypothesized that a reliable source
of CaO along with supplementation of trace minerals
to contaminated soil will precipitate the elevated
levels of Fluorine while providing essential
mineral nutrients to renew hygienic biological
(Bowen and Rovira, 1966) activity in these soils
as it provides renewed mineral diversity to
the soil in order to sustain renewed vigor to
Kelzyme mineral was obtained from the deposit
in Nevada, USA and transported to the test site
in Encinitas, California in San Diego County,
USA. Testing was done on twelve individual 3ft
by 2ft beds of rice plants (Oriza sativa L).
Muck soil was created (Parr, Hornick, 1993)
so that each test bed had the same basic chemistry
and physical structure. Twelve inches of the
created muck soil was placed into each bed then
each bed was filled with ultra violet light
sterilized water to a depth of four inches above
soil level. To create movement in the water
each bed was aerated with an airstone to mimic
typical levels of dissolved oxygen in a rice
field (Rackocy, Doelle, 1997). Each test bed
was pH balanced using peat moss in the muck
soil mixture to achieve an aggregate pH of 5.8-6.0.
Six rice plant seedlings of equal size and weight
were placed into the muck soil.
control beds (A, B) were left alone. Beds
(C, D) were inoculated with Urea Formaldehyde
nitrogen and 100-PPM elemental Fluorine.
Beds (E, F) were inoculated with Urea
Formaldehyde nitrogen and 200-PPM elemental
fluorine. Beds (G, H) were inoculated
with anhydrous ammonia and 100 PPM elemental
fluorine and beds (I, J) were inoculated
with anhydrous ammonia and 200 PPM elemental
fluorine. Beds (K, L) were inoculated
with emulsified fish solids and 100-PPM
elemental fluorine and beds (M, N) were
inoculated with fish solids and 200-PPM
elemental fluorine. Beds (B, D, F, H,
J, L, and N) were also inoculated with
Kelzyme at a rate equal to 340kg per acre.
Testing began on April
3, 2000 and were concluded on July 28,2000.
This allowed for one planting and the second
generation of tests is currently underway using
the same methodology. Total microorganisms were
estimated by the plate count method. Bacteria
and actinomycete populations were counted on
egg albumin agar (Tadao, 1984). Total fungi
were counted on rose bengal agar (Martin, 1950).
Azotobacter were isolated on nitrogen-free mannitol
broth agar (Harrigan and Margaret, 1966). Clostridia
were isolated on media described by Sheldon
(1970). Lactobacillus spp. were counted on Rogosa
agar (Harrigan and Margaret, 1966). Starch digesting
bacteria were counted using the method of Sheldon
(1970). Agrobacterium, Erwinia, Pseudomonas,
and Xanthomonas spp. were counted on D1, D3,
D4, and D5 selective media, respectively (Kado
and Heskett, 1970). Fusarium was counted on
Komada's medium (Tadao, 1984); Verticillium
on alcohol agar medium (Mathew and Chester,
1959); and Thievalopsis on RBM2 medium (Tsao,
Soil bulk density and
porosity were determined according to methods
described by Henry (1984), using 1cm diameter
cores from each plot taken to a depth of 4 cm.
Soil porosity was calculated from the ration
of pore space and soil volume. Soil aggregation
was determined by the pipette method of Hormers
Testing for F was calculated
by mass spectrometry of soil and plant tissues.
Testing was conducted offsite at independent
testing laboratories, Expert Chemical Analysis
of Del Mar, California and San Diego State University,
San Diego, California.
in Fluorine Contamination
The inoculated beds (C,
E, G, I, K, and M) remained high in F contamination
while beds (C and E) actually tested higher
in F contamination than the inoculated rate.
In each case of inoculation with Kelzyme the
amount of elemental F in each sample taken was
lower than the inoculation rate by an average
of 17.2%. Fluorine had been complexed to the
CaO in the Kelzyme into Calcium Fluoride CaF2,
which exhibits a very low solubility product
in Soil Microflora
In most cases, the numbers
of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes increased
after the soil was treated with Kelzyme fossilized
marine algae, although the numbers of actinomycetes
were lower in site (G) than the unfertilized
control. It was interesting that the lowest
number of actinomycetes occurred when the soil
was treated with urea formaldehyde fertilizer
only (beds C and E).
Generic analysis of the
bacterial flora in the soil due to Kelzyme treatment
is shown. In most cases the Kelzyme treatment
markedly increased the number of Enterobacter
spp. and starch digesting bacteria over that
of the unfertilized control (A), but had little
effect on enhancing the numbers of Lactobacillus
spp. The highest numbers of Azotobacter and
Clostridium species were attained with the fertilized
control (N), while the lowest number of each
occurred with the unfertilized, untreated control
(A). The highest number of Xanthomonas and Erwinia
species were found in the fertilized control
(G), the highest number of Agrobacterium from
the combination of cold process fish emulsion
and Kelzyme (N), and the highest number of Pseudomonas
from anhydrous ammonia (I).
in Soil Physical and Chemical Properties
Soil aggregation was
significantly higher for all Kelzyme treatments
than either the control (A) or the fertilized
control (B). Soil aggregation actually decreased
in the fertilized control (B). There was little
difference in the effect of Kelzyme treatment
or the unfertilized controls on soil pH. However
humus content was markedly increased which is
assumed to be caused from the organic matter
in many of the treatments including Kelzyme.
Nitrate levels were slightly higher in treatments
and ammonium levels were unremarkably higher
in the Kelzyme treatments. Potassium was also
slightly increased by an average of 7% by the
Kelzyme treatments. The most dramatic effects
on the Kelzyme treatments were the elevated
levels of calcium, Ca and the increased levels
of inorganic (plant available) phosphorus, which
was higher than the unfertilized control in
The reduction of Fluorine
contamination in each of the tests indicates
a positive aspect of using the Kelzyme mineral
in order to reduce the problems associated with
this element in contaminated soils. It is evident
from the test beds that fertilization with urea
based nitrogen sources can exacerbate the problem
of F contamination and may in fact be the cause
of the existing conditions in Pakistan.
The lowest number of
actinomycetes occurred in soil treated with
anhydrous ammonium suggesting that these microorganisms
may somehow have been suppressed, either directly
or indirectly, by the fertilizer components.
Beliaev (1958) found that continuous application
of ammonium fertilizer without calcium can suppress
the actinomycetes since the ammonium is oxidized
to nitric acid by microbial action. The resultant
decrease in soil pH from can cause unfavorable
growth conditions where ammonia is used.
generic analysis of the bacterial flora
showed that fermentative bacteria such
as Enterobacter, starch digesting bacteria,
Azotobacter, and Clostridia, are present
in soil treated with Kelzyme and the fertilized
control (B), but to a lesser extent in
the unfertilized control. This may have
been due to the effect of some specific
nutrient requirement for the growth of
fermentative bacteria. Gyllenberg (1956)
reported seasonal variations in which
the relative abundance of Aa grouping
bacteria increased with a decrease in
the abundance of Ba grouping bacteria.
It remains unexplained whether the increase
in the relative abundance of the Aa grouping
bacteria was accompanied by the accumulation
of specific nutrients such as amino acids.
At present there is no
clear relationship between Kelzyme treatments
and the number of soil disease bacteria, e.g.,
Xanthomonas, Erwinia, Agrobacterium, and Pseudomonas,
as shown in Table 2. But in the preliminary
experiment it appeared that treatment of soils
along with certain organically based nitrogen
source (beds K, L, M, N) is associated with
a rather low population of disease bacteria.
The effect of Kelzyme
on fungal populations is soil indicated that
soil treated with only fertilizer had low numbers
of Penicillium and Trichoderma. These beneficial
fungi can play an important role in inhibiting
or suppressing soil borne microbial plant pathogens
through their antagonistic activities. Large
numbers of plant disease pathogens were found
in both of the control treatments.
The effect of Kelzyme
on soil physical properties suggests that Kelzyme
can induce plant roots to penetrate soil more
effectively. Soil treated with Kelzyme becomes
more friable and porous, less compact, and promotes
deeper cultivation. Microorganisms, particularly
fungi, can bind soil particles into more stable
aggregates. Bacteria can synthesize cementing
agents in the form of gums and polysaccharides
that also help to promote good aggregation.
Lynch (1981) found that Azotobacter chroococcum,
Lipomyces starkeyi, and Pseudomonas spp. can
promote the stabilization of soil aggregates.
Insoluble soil phosphorus
compounds (both organic and inorganic) are largely
unavailable to plants, however many microorganisms
can solubilize these compounds and make them
available for uptake. Martin (1961) found that
one-tenth to one-half of the bacterial isolates
he tested were capable of solubilizing calcium
and phosphorus. Fungal species of the genera
Pseudomonas, Myobacter, Micrococcus, Flavobacterium,
Penicillium, Sclerotium, Aspergillus, and others
are also known to solubilize insoluble phosphates
to plant-available forms.
Beliaev, G.N., 1958,
Mikrobiologiya, 27: 472-477
Bowen, G.D. and Rovira,
A.D., 1966, Microbial Factor in Short Term Phosphate
with Plant Roots, Nature (London), 211:665-666
Brown, M.E., 1974, Seed
and Root Bacterisation, Annual Review Phytopathology,
Elad, Y., 1985, Mechanisms
of Interactions Between Rhizosphere Microorganisms
and Soil Borne
Plant Pathogens, p. 42-72,
In V. Jansen, A Kjoller, and L.H. Sorenson (ed.),
Microbial Communities in Soil, Elsevier Applied
Science, New York.
Gyllenberg, H.G., 1956,
Seasonal Variation in the Composition of the
Bacterial Soil Flora in Relation to Plant Development,
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 3:131-134
Harrigan, W.F., 1984,
and E.M.C. Margaret, 1996, Laboratory Methods
in Microbiology. Academic Press, London.
Henry, D.F., 1984, Fundamentals
of Soil Science, 7th Edition, John Wiley and
Sons, New York.
Higa, T., 1986, Studies
on the Application of Microorganisms in Farming,
6th IFOAM Conference, August 18-21, 1986, University
of California, Santa Cruz.
Kado, C.I. and M.G. Heskett,
1970, Selective Medium for Isolation of Cornyebacterium,
Erwinia, Pseudomonas, and Xanthomonas, Phytopathology,
Marois, J.J., D.J. Mitchell
and R.M. Sonoda, 1981, Biological Control of
Fusarium Crown Root of Tomato Under Field Conditions,
Phytopathology, 71: 1257-1260.
Martin, J.P. and S. A.
Waksman, 1940, Influence of Microorganisms on
Soil Aggregation and Erosion II, Soil Science
42: 29-46 Martin J.P., 1950, Use of Acid Rose
Bengal and Streptomycin in the Plate Method
for Estimating Soil Fungi, Soil Science, 52:
Mathew, J.N. and E.H.
Chester, 1959, An Alcohol Agar Medium Selective
for Determining Verticillium microsclerotia
in Soil, Phytopathology, 49: 527-528
Mishustin, E.N., 1970,
The Importance of Non-symbiotic Microorganisms
in Agricultural Plants, Plant and Soil 32: 545-554.
Rubenchick, L.I., 1963,
Azotobacter and its Use in Agriculture, Israeli
Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem,
Sheldon, A., 1970, Experimental
Microbial Ecology, Academic Press, New York.
Tadao, U.I., 1984, Handbook
of Soil Borne Disease, Japan Plant Protection
Tsao, P.H., 1964, Effect
of Certain Fungal Isolation Agar Media on Thielaviopsis
basicola and on its Recovery in Soil Dilution
Plates, Phytopathology, 54: 548-555
The number of fungal
species after Kelzyme treatment of this soil
are shown. The highest number of Trichoderma
species was found after treatment with fish
solids and Kelzyme (N) and the highest number
of Penicillium with fish solids and Kelzyme
(N). However, the lowest number of specimens
in these genera resulted from the anhydrous
ammonia only treatment (G, I). The highest number
of Verticillium species was observed in the
urea fertilized beds (C, E). But the combination
of cold process fish solids and Kelzyme appeared
to suppress the numbers of this soil borne plant
pathogen. The highest number of Fusarium species
resulted from treatment with the urea fertilized
control (C, E), while the combination of cold
process fish solids and Kelzyme markedly suppressed
the numbers of this particularly destructive